A Primer on Pharmacokinetics

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Pharmacogenomics
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Dr. Ashkan Khabazian functions as the lead clinical pharmacist in San Diego County’s largest Emergency and Trauma Center at Sharp Memorial Hospital in San Diego. Dr. Ashkan Khabazian maintains in-depth knowledge of many key topics within clinical pharmacy, including pharmacogenomics and pharmacokinetics.

The branch of medical science concerned with the movement of drugs through the body, pharmacokinetics is useful in determining the onset, intensity, and duration of the effects of a drug. To understand such movement, pharmacokinetics takes a variety of factors, including age, gender, genetic makeup, and renal function into account.

Pharmacokinetics researchers often use a scheme known as LADME, which refers to five stages of drug processes in the body: liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Liberation and absorption are known as “input” processes, meaning that they are involved in the transfer of the drug to the body. Distribution, metabolism, and excretion are known as “output” processes, as they deal primarily with removal from the body. It is important to note that the LADME processes do not necessarily occur in separate phases; distribution and metabolism almost always occur to some degree while the drug is still being liberated and absorbed.

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Benefits of Interval Training

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Interval Training
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A graduate of the PharmD program at the University of Michigan, Ashkan Khabazian serves as lead emergency department clinical pharmacist at Sharp Memorial Hospital in San Diego, California. In his free time, Ashkan Khabazian enjoys interval training at Orangetheory Fitness.

Characterized by alternating bursts of intense physical exercise followed by short periods of lighter activity or rest, interval training provides a number of health benefits. Because interval training causes multiple spikes in heart rate during a workout, it can actually burn more calories than sustained moderate exercise for the same length of time. Furthermore, your body will continue to burn calories long after the workout is finished, due to a biological principle known as excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, or EPOC.

From a practical standpoint, interval training workouts can take a wide variety of forms, depending on an individual’s fitness goals. For those interested in improving aerobic capacity, try incorporating sprints. For those interested in building strength, weighted exercises fit in well with interval training programs. Many consider program flexibility to be one of the biggest selling points of interval training.